How Long Does Tea Stay Fresh?
The shelf life of tea is a common topic of discussion among tea drinkers. We often see questions such as:
- Can tea go bad?
- How do I keep my loose leaf tea fresh?
- Which teas have longer or shorter shelf lives?
Let's look at some of the factors that affect how long your tea stays fresh.
Solar withering is the first stage of oolong tea processing. How long tea stays fresh depends on how dry it is.
How long tea stays fresh primarily depends on how well it is dried when it's initially processed. The more moisture remaining in the tea leaves, the more volatile they are and the sooner they will lose their freshness.
The only way any tea leaves will actually spoil is when they are kept in an extremely humid environment, where they will eventually absorb enough moisture to go moldy, so proper storage of tea leaves is important to keeping your tea fresh.
As a rule, the more processed the leaves are, the easier it is to dry them and stabilize their constitution. Given this, more processed teas will typically have a longer shelf life. So, in general, a green tea will not stay fresh as long as a black tea.
Oxidation can be seen as a method of "curing" the tea leaves to result in various flavor profiles, but it also stabilizes the constitution of the leaves— making them less volatile. There is a broad spectrum of tea types made from partially oxidized tea leaves that include White Tea, Yellow Tea, and Oolong Tea.
Any type of tea can be roasted, But for the most part, only sufficiently oxidized Oolong Teas undergo any significant degree of roasting. In addition to oxidation, roasting further cures the leaves, depleting them of any remaining moisture, and making them more stable in their constitution. It also enhances the flavor profile to give it a more full-bodied, bolder character.
Given the above factors, we can make a general list of tea types according to shelf life from longest to shortest.
Shelf Life of Tea Types (Longest to Shortest)
- Black Tea
- Heaviliy oxidized, and/or roasted teas
- Medium oxidized, roasted teas
- Lightly oxidized unroasted teas
- Green Tea
Green Tea is made from tea leaves that are dehydrated without undergoing any oxidation, and almost all Green Tea types are unroasted. This makes it the freshest, and consequently the most volatile of all tea types. Black Tea is fully oxidized, which puts it at the opposite end of the oxidation spectrum from Green Tea. In short, the more processed the leaves are, via oxidation and/or roasting, the more stable and less volatile the tea will be — giving the tea a longer shelf life.
Conversely, there is the art of aging tea to increase its quality and value. This idea alone may appear to contradict everything we are talking about here, but in fact it still follows the basic drying rule of thumb. Aging tea is actually a form of post production processing to transform the tea's original character of tea into something, well — beyond.
Oolong Tea being aged in ceramic urns, along with some Pu Er cakes simply wrapped in paper on the shelf below.
Aged Tea still needs to be stored in a cool, dry place, without exposure to light. The only thing it's allowed to be exposed to is air — in order to allow a very long slow form of oxidation to occur in the dried leaves that transforms the compounds in the leaves and results in a mellowed, rich character of tea. But aging tea is in a category of its own, and like we said — beyond the scope of this post!
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The medium oxidized leaves have undergone extensive, repeated roastings that have resulted in a very balanced, integrated character. The initial steepings offer a freshly cut wood aroma with a toasted nutty flavor. This proceeds to open up into a sweeter, more complex profile that is strikingly reminiscent of roasted winter vegetables, including parsnip, caramelized onion and butternut squash.
Mr. Zhang's father cultivated tea on their homesteaded land in Xiaobantian, on the southside of Lugu Township, where he grew up in the midst of traditional tea making. At 20 something, he decided to embody his local tradition by clearing land to cultivate his own plot of tea. For the last 20 years, he has managed his own humble, privately owned plot of tea. Throughout this period, he also acquired seasonal work in tea factories in Lugu, Shanlinxi, Alishan, Fanzaitian, and Lishan. In a word, he learned the ropes of tea making in a comprehensive way, like most tea farmers of his generation. Lugu hosts the highest concentration of tea makers in Taiwan, and is a hub of specialty tea making culture.